Multiple sclerosis is a progressive neurological disorder that is characterized by extensive inflammatory cause demyelination in patches within the white matter of the central nervous system.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune and inflammatory central nervous system. It affects 1 individual 170-4 000. An estimated 2 million people worldwide are affected with 50,000 in France. 70% of cases are women, the age of onset of the disease varies between 20 and 40 years.
It is often characterized by episodes of neurological relapse followed by remission (relapsing / remitting). In about one third of patients, the progression of the disease is progressive (secondary progressive MS). In a minority of patients, progressive neurological deterioration without remission occurs early in the disease (primary progressive MS). The symptoms are highly variable and may affect all major neurological functions (sensory, sensory, motor, cognitive, …)
Of genetic and environmental factors play a role in susceptibility to disease, but MS is not an inherited genetic disorder. The pathological mechanism underlying MS is an autoimmune attack of the myelin sheath, mediated immunity both humoral and cellular, and recent data suggest that MS is a degenerative disease affecting axons and oligodendrocytes.
The diagnosis is based on clinical and radiological (magnetic resonance imaging). In some cases, a lumbar puncture and other noninvasive may also be necessary.
Disabling relapses are treated with intravenous injections of high doses of corticosteroids. In relapsing / remitting MS, immunomodulatory treatments such as interferon beta and copolymer reduces the risk of relapse. These treatments are administered by injection at least once a week. Immunosuppressive drugs can also be used in aggressive forms of the disease, often intravenously. Physiotherapy plays a key role in the management of disability caused by the disease. According to symptoms (tremor, spasticity), other medications may be indicated.
For more information: Gene Reviews
Leukomalacia is a lesion of the white matter of the brain located around the ventricles (cavities of the brain containing cerebrospinal fluid) occurring in premature infants.
Seems to be the cause ischemia (insufficient blood supply to the brain). If the disease can be expressed before birth, is the benchmark most commonly after birth. This neurological disorder affects approximately 5-15% of premature babies less than 33 weeks. It results in motor dysfunction and sensory and cognitive deficits ranging from learning disabilities to profound psychomotor retardation.
For more information: Medical Journal of Brussels