Glossary



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  • Macrocephaly : Abnormally large head due to an abnormally thick cerebral cortex.
  • Mb : Megabase - Unit of length of DNA equivalent to 1 million nucleotides.
  • Meiosis : A process of reductional division, which occurs in the reproductive cells, in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half.
  • Metabolism : General term to express the various transformations of chemical substances in the body. Anabolism synthesizes substances and uses energy. Catabolism breaks them down and releases energy.
  • Metabolite : A molecule involved in metabolism.
  • Microdeletion : Loss of a small segment of the chromosome.
  • Microglia : Type of glial cells corresponding to the immune cells of the central nervous system.
  • Microgliosis : Modification of the shape and function of microglial cells.
  • Mitosis : Cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes.
  • Molecular biology : Branch of science involving the study of DNA, genes and chromosomes.
  • Monounsaturated fatty acid : Fatty acid containing one double bond in the hydrocarbon chain.
  • Morbidity : Percentage of individuals in a population, in a given time, suffering from a disease or a group of diseases.
  • Multicenter : A clinical trial that takes place at a few different places (Multicenter study)
  • Multiple sclerosis : Disease affecting the myelin sheath causing a multitude of neurological symptoms. It usually affects young adults and can develop either in a chronic progressive manner, or with relapses and remissions. The exact cause of MS remains unknown.
  • Multipotent : Capable of giving rise to several specialized cells. (Usually in reference to adult stem cells).
  • Murine : Concerning rodents, e.g. rats or mice.
  • Myelin : The protective coating that surrounds nerve cells (axons) allowing electrical signal transmission along nerve fibres. Myelin serves as insulation and aids efficient nerve fibre conduction.
  • Myotatic reflex : Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching (stretch reflex).