Glossary



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  • Allele : One version of a particular gene. Each human cell has two copies of each gene. The gene inherited from the mother located at a precise position (locus) of a given chromosome, and the gene inherited from the father, located at precisely the same locus on the same chromosome are 'alleles' of the same gene.
  • Allogeneic : From a genetically different member of the same species. (If bone marrow from a donor is used, the transplant is called an "allogeneic" bone marrow transplant).
  • Antibody : A protein produced by the body's immune system that fights infections and other foreign substances in the body.
  • Aplasia : Term often used to describe the temporary situation (empty marrow cavity, absence of blood cell production) arising during the bone marrow transplant procedure.
  • Apoptosis : Cellular suicide.
  • Astrocyte : A type of glial cell. Glial cells are the connective tissue cells of the central nervous system, serving as the supportive structure that holds together and protects neurons.
  • Astrocytosis : Modification of the astrocyte shape and function.
  • Ataxia : Inability to coordinate voluntary muscle movements, clumsiness which can affect balance and walking, movement of limbs, eyes and speaking.
  • Autograft : Graft where the donor and recipient are the same person.
  • Autophagy : Degradation of a cell by itself.
  • Autosome : Of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in human cells, the 22 that do not differ between sexes are 'autosomal'. The final pair is that of the sex chromosomes: XX for females and XY for males.
  • Axon : Extension of the nerve cell carrying the nerve signal.